Friday, May 15, 2020

How to Write a Case Study Analysis for Business School

When writing a business case study analysis, you must first have a good understanding of the case study. Before you begin the steps below, read the business case carefully, taking notes all the while. It may be necessary to read the case several times to get all of the details and fully grasp the issues facing the group, company, or industry. As you are reading, do your best to identify key issues, key players, and the most pertinent facts. After you are comfortable with the information, use the following step-by-step instructions (geared toward a single-company analysis) to write your report. To write about an industry, just adapt the steps listed here to discuss the segment as a whole. Step 1: Investigate the Company’s History and Growth A company’s past can greatly affect the present and future state of the organization. To begin, investigate the company’s founding, critical incidents, structure, and growth. Create a timeline of events, issues, and achievements. This timeline will come in handy for the next step.   Step 2: Identify Strengths and Weaknesses Using the information you gathered in step one, continue by examining and making a list of the value creation functions of the company. For example, the company may be weak in product development but strong in marketing. Make a list of problems that have occurred and note the effects they have had on the company. You should also list areas where the company has excelled. Note the effects of these incidents as well. Youre essentially conducting a partial  SWOT analysis  to get a better understanding of the companys strengths and weaknesses. A SWOT analysis involves documenting things like internal strengths (S) and weaknesses (W)  and  external opportunities (O) and threats (T).   Step 3: Examine the External Environment The third step involves identifying opportunities and threats within the company’s external environment. This is where the second part of the SWOT analysis (the O and the T)  comes into play. Special items to note include competition within the industry, bargaining powers, and the threat of substitute products. Some examples of opportunities include expansion into new markets or new technology. Some examples of threats include  increasing competition and higher interest rates. Step 4: Analyze Your Findings Using the information in steps 2 and 3, create an evaluation for this portion of your case study analysis. Compare the strengths and weaknesses within the company to the external threats and opportunities. Determine if the company is in a strong competitive position, and decide if it can continue at its current pace successfully. Step 5: Identify Corporate-Level Strategy To identify a company’s corporate-level strategy, identify and evaluate the company’s mission, goals, and actions toward those goals. Analyze the company’s line of business and its subsidiaries and acquisitions. You also want to debate the pros and cons of the company strategy to determine whether or not a change might benefit the company in the short or long term.​ Step 6: Identify Business-Level Strategy Thus far, your case study analysis has identified the company’s corporate-level strategy. To perform a complete analysis, you will need to identify the company’s business-level strategy. (Note: If it is a single business, without multiple companies under one umbrella, and not an industry-wide review, the corporate strategy and the business-level strategy are the same.) For this part, you should identify and analyze each company’s competitive strategy, marketing strategy, costs, and general focus. Step 7: Analyze Implementations This portion requires that you identify and analyze the structure and control systems that the company is using to implement its business strategies. Evaluate organizational change, levels of hierarchy, employee rewards, conflicts, and other issues that are important to the company you are analyzing. Step 8: Make Recommendations The final part of your case study analysis should include your recommendations for the company. Every recommendation you make should be based on and supported by the context of your analysis. Never share hunches or make a baseless recommendation. You also want to make sure that your suggested solutions are actually realistic. If the solutions cannot be implemented due to some sort of restraint, they are not realistic enough to make the final cut. Finally, consider some of the alternative solutions that you considered and rejected. Write down the reasons why these solutions were rejected.   Step 9: Review Look over your analysis when you have finished writing. Critique your work to make sure every step has been covered. Look for grammatical errors, poor sentence structure, or other things that can be improved. It should be clear, accurate, and professional. Business Case Study Analysis Tips Keep these strategic tips in mind: Know the case study ​backward and forward before you begin your case study analysis.Give yourself enough time to write the case study analysis. You dont want to rush through it.Be honest in your evaluations. Dont let personal issues and opinions cloud your judgment.Be analytical, not descriptive.Proofread your work, and even let a test reader give it a once-over for dropped words or typos that you no longer can see.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Poem The Sea - 729 Words

The Ocean ‘’Come in Ally,’’ Kevin says. I shake my head without a moment s hesitation. I do not want to go in the ocean. My mind is racing through all of the different animals that are in that ocean, just waiting for me. What if I get stung? What if a crab pinches me? What if I get eaten? There are so many really big animals in there that could swallow me in one bite! Then I close my eyes and focus on my breathing. Take a deep breath in and let it out. Smell the roses and blow out the candles. I breath in the crisp summer air and decide I am ready to open my eyes again. When I do, I become aware of every wave, ripple, and sparkle reflecting off the water. My eyes follow my family as they are thrown with every wave that†¦show more content†¦I can’t go in the water. I can’t. My breathing is so fast that I fear I might pass out. It feels like an eternity, but it has only been a few seconds. We get so far out that the water is up to Kevin’s waist and my feet start to touch the water. Kevin tries to let me go, but I will not let go. I can’t. Unexpectedly he goes underwater with him still carrying me. The shock of the water takes me by surprise and I let go. My feet hit the sand and I let out a gasp. Even though the sand is warm and soft I do not want to be touching it. I push myself up out of the water and as soon as I get up, a huge wave pushes my back underwater and I am thrown into the sand. It is soft, yet it still hurt. I push myself to stay in. This isn’t so bad. Another wave comes and it pulls me under again and a rock is being pushed into my knee. The rock drags across my leg drawing blood. I get out of the ocean and look at my leg. It doesn’t look too bad but it definitely left a mark. My breathing slows down as I close my eyes. When I calm down I realize that my mouth is turned upwards at the corners. Am I smiling? Then I realize that was the most fun I have had in awhile. Sure I got hurt a little, but I am not eaten, stung, or pinched. I thought that my thoughts would never change. Until now. This time when Kevin calls me I go in without a moment s hesitation. I can doShow MoreRelatedAt Sea - Poem Analysis1343 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿At Sea - Simon Armitage The Title to this poem At Sea is a neutral title and doesn t give away a lot of the meaning to the poem. It doesn t necessarily commit to anything specific; it s just a statement. This is just like the poem. Armitage hasn t completely stated what the poem is about, there is nothing to say that it is definitely describing someone/something At Sea . However, there are small links that suggest the Sea is being used metaphorically. I think that the summary ofRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Sea Of Lavender 1506 Words   |  7 Pagesthe first effect. As a college student, maybe I’m not so paying attention to the global news, and my words are not so professional or correct, but I know that with the global warming, more and more glacier and ice layer will melt. 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This givesRead MoreUp And Down : Analysis On The Tranquil Scenery Written Out By Frost863 Words   |  4 PagesUp and Down –an Analysis on â€Å"Neither Out Far nor in Deep† As beings with the capacity to imagine, we often dream of things of which we do not have or places that can not be reached and occasionally, we may be so focused on our goal that we become short-sighted towards the happenings of now. In Robert Frost’s lyrical poem, â€Å"Neither Out Far nor in Deep,† the tranquil scenery written out by Frost is overshadowed by the darker message that is told by the poem’s quite detached lyrical â€Å"I.† Through carefulRead MoreStylistic Analysis of the Lost Baby Poem1317 Words   |  6 PagesStudent number: 12056010 A Stylistic Analysis of  «Ã‚  the lost baby poem  Ã‚ » by Lucille Clifton In this stylistic analysis of the lost baby poem written by Lucille Clifton I will deal mainly with two aspects of stylistic: derivation and parallelism features present in the poem. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Knowledge Management of QBE Insurance Company †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Knowledge Management of QBE Insurance Company . Answer: Introduction Knowledge management is an Information Technology based system that provides a business environment for themanagement of knowledge, like; storage of data, collection of data and assistance for the development in future. In a workplace, knowledgemanagement system enables the employees to use the resources, business facts and implement the appropriate solutions. It is the most important process for developing core competencies of the firm. It is the process of gathering, sharing, utilizing and managing the knowledge and other material information, so that goals and objectives of the company can be attained with the proper utilization of knowledge. This process allows the organization to identify the issues and create appropriate solutions. In order to prepare this report, the organization, which is taken into consideration, is QBE Insurance Company in Australia. It is operating its business operations from over 125 years in the country and offers the peace of mind to the Australian people. The organization is well-established in the Australian insurance industry and covering one place in the top 20 insurance companies in the world (QBE, 2017). This report includes the knowledgemanagement system that is used at QBE Insurance Company and it includes its knowledge infrastructure. The company is using some technological solutions to deal with the knowledge management systems. Furthermore, it includes the impact of this system on people, processes and products of company. The company has implemented this technique successfully in order to generate positive results. Organizational Description QBE Insurance Company is one of the top insurance companies in Australia, which was founded in the year 1886 by James Burns and Robert Phillips. As of 1890, it has established more than 36 insurance agencies in different locations, like; Europe, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Pacific Iceland. Furthermore, in 1904, it has opened its new stores in London near Fenchurch Street. Firstly, it has started its business with the name of North Queensland Insurance Company. In Australia, this organization is working to help in safeguarding the people in their occupations. It provides assistance to Australian people from their home to office and any other area of their life. With the passage of time, the company has grown up its business into refined insurance service providers (QBE, 2017). Generally, this firm offers the insurance services, like; general insurance. QBE offers nine types of general insurance to the people worldwide. It provides protection to them in many parts, like; workpla ce, homes, tourist places etc. In addition to this, the company is emphasized on enhancing the customer service via using advanced technology and new and innovative ideas and services. In the end of 2014, the gross premium of the company was increased to $17 billion. Under insurance industry, the major vision of QBE Insurance Company is to be the most successful insurance service providers in both domestic and global market as well. For increasing their insurance policies, the company is always focused on enhancing the services to shareholders, customers and community as well. Knowledge Management Infrastructure Knowledge Management Infrastructure refers to all the things, which combine to simplify the flow of knowledge and information to assist the actions and decisions, which include the organizational processes and activities. Therefore, this infrastructure does not just include the IT infrastructure. It also includes human, organizational and social components of an organization (Becerra-Fernandez, Sabherwal, 2014). QBE Insurance has created an effective knowledge management infrastructure to deal with the issues. Knowledge Management Infrastructure of QBE Insurance Company is stated below; Culture Organizational culture of an organization shows its beliefs and norms, which guide the behaviors of its employees. It is a significant component of knowledge management in companies. It includes the knowing about the knowledge management processes and managing assistance for knowledge management at all the level. For improving the business growth and attain more customers, QBE Insurance used different knowledge sharing techniques in its workplace. It enables the management of QBE in sharing the new and creative ideas from one service to other. Implicit knowledge sharing techniques assists the management in knowing about the appropriate resources and ideas and transfers them to the staff and employees to develop an effective culture (Carroll Buchholtz, 2014). Organizational Structure Furthermore, knowledge management relies to a significant extent on the organizational structure. There are many aspects, which are related to this concept. At QBE, hierarchical organization structure is practiced, under which all the levels are maintained effectively. In the Information Technology system at QBE Insurance Company, embedded knowledge has an importance role. This system enables the Chief Executive Officer to access the information of their workplace and about its organizational culture. Moreover, it also assists in understanding the working processes of employees. For example, at QBE, embedded knowledge offers the rules and regulations, which have to be followed by all the employees. Furthermore, this provides the working schedule to other levels of management, i.e. middle and lower level people (Eckles, Hoyt Miller, 2014). By this, they can know about the schedule to communicate with their shareholders and customers. The structural knowledge makes the management and CEO able to access the past data and information from the place, where it is stored. IT Infrastructure Knowledge management is enabled by the Information Technology infrastructure of the company. The companies develop some systems and technologies to process the knowledge management. These systems may include the data processing, communication systems and technologies. At QBE Insurance company, it is using E-learning IT tool that assists the organization in web conferencing with the customers and shareholders all over the world. Under its IT infrastructure, the company has used this tool that enables the management and staff to provide new and appropriate solutions of the problems, training policies and processes. Furthermore, this system assists the management in the formal entertainment. Using this tool, the company is able to cover huge target customers not only from Australian states but also all over the world (Ghandvar, Sehhat, 2015). The senior management at QBE tracks the consistency and progress report of staff by this e-learning tool. This technique of blended learning assi sts in generating higher retention knowledge. In addition to this, the company has installed different techniques under its IT infrastructure for communication in the organization. This system fulfills all the aspects of this system at QBE, i.e. reach, depth, richness and aggregation. Physical Environment Physical Environment is also an important foundation, on which the knowledge management system depends, but organizations take this element for granted. It includes different physical aspects of a company, like; buildings, type of offices, number of meeting rooms etc. QBE has designed a meeting room, where the management conducts the meeting with its employees to share the required information. In these meetings, it takes the ideas and opinions on any business problem (Hau, et al, 2013). The environment at workplace is very attractive and it has a venue where the staff can learn from and share their ideas and opinions with each other. For effective learning, it is very important to provide a better physical environment. At QBE, this component of knowledge infrastructure encourages the knowledge management by giving different opportunities to the employees to meet and give their ideas. Technologies used by Organization For managing the knowledge effectively, the organizations generally use different IT tools, which provide them effective solutions for business problems. At QBE, there are different tools of Information Technology, which are used for knowledge management. These techniques are used for facilitating their knowledge management solutions. For maintaining daily report and provide updated the information and supervising the working performance of QBE Insurance Company, the management is using Oracle Learning Management System for their employees. Learning management system is the process of recording, tracking, transferring and reporting the training programs via different software applications (Hislop, 2013). The senior management of QBE Insurance Company recognizes that Oracle Learning Management system is one of the best and appropriate ways for enhancing the performance of employees. However, this ensures the sales and service of the organization and enhances the readiness. In order to enhance the knowledge and skills for satisfying the customers, Oracle Learning Management assists in training and development. Oracle Learning Management is an effective system for learning and management, which assists in giving, tracking and organizing the overall process of management (Ben-Tal, et al, 2015). In the staff of QBE Insurance Company, the employees are able to recognize the needed learning methods via joining online classes. In addition to this, QBE Insurance Company is using E-learning social based tool, which assists the organization in sharing the knowledge among employees of the organization. It assists in interacting with the shareholders, customers and community via messages. This IT tool provides the updated information to the customers about the insurance policies and terms. This technology offers the online communication that facilitates the communication with the internal and external stakeholders of the company. In this way, this system reduces the costs and time for travelling to their place. By the use of e-learning, QBE gives the training session to the employees and enhances their abilities and skills. Furthermore, management itself is getting various advantages from e-learning social based tool. From a location, the managers at QBE access the information remotely about the performance of their employees and get the whole process of business operations of QBE (Galliers Leidner, 2014). Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge Management systems are the systems, which are developed by integrating different tools and technologies that support the processes of knowledge management. These systems are the solutions to the knowledge management requirements and use various techniques of knowledge management (Holsapple, 2013). In an organization, the knowledge management system is divided in four categories; Knowledge Discovery System Knowledge Capture System Knowledge Sharing System Knowledge Application System For QBE Insurance Company, two of the processes are stated below; Knowledge Sharing Systems Knowledge sharing is the process, by which tacit knowledge is delivered to other individuals. This is an effective type of information transfer that can be taken place across the departments, employees, groups and individuals. QBE Insurance Company is using an effective mode for sharing the knowledge among its employees (Wang Wang, 2016). For sharing the knowledge across the organization, QBE is using embedded knowledge system that assists the organization in situation planning and assuming its workforce. After doing the situation planning, it enables the management in creating a structure that offers them a process for operating the system effectively. By using this system, the organization is able to share all the guidelines and procedures of organization among its entire people. Furthermore, the company uses tacit knowledge sharing tools, which allows the management team to share existing and new ideas from one person to another (Holtshouse, 2013). These systems help in transferr ing the ideas to employees to develop a better system. Knowledge Application System Knowledge Application system is another system that can be used in managing the knowledge and material information in the organization. This is the system that assists the process via which some people use the knowledge possessed by other people without actually getting, teaching or learning that knowledge. This system does not include any exchange or transfer of knowledge. There are two ways of this system, such as; direction and routines. At QBE Insurance Company, the management team has used the routine as its knowledge application system. They are using embedded knowledge system and they have includes the knowledge in their routine processes norms and rules, which guide the behavior of employees in the future (Huang Lai, 2014). QBE believes that knowledge application system should be very effective at the organization as it is most important component of overall knowledge management process. Under this, the company uses different software and applications, like; enterprise resou rce planning, Customer relationship management system, expert system, knowledge system etc. Impact of knowledge management solutions on: people, processes, products and organization performance As discussed above, knowledge management is an important process for an organization and its people. Generally, knowledge is created by integrating four factors, people, practice, processes and technology. At QBE, the knowledge management system has a huge impact on different components of an organization, such as; people, processes, products and organizational performance. The impact of this system on different components at QBE is stated below; People In the process of knowledge management, people are the major sources of knowledge and information. These people create and get the knowledge, use it and learn from it. After that, they teach the other people in order for the company to become very innovative and develop new ideas and opinions (Jones George, 2015). At QBE, people have the largest impact of the knowledge management system. The company has implemented the Oracle Learning Management system that assisted in defining the learning objective in a specific framework. In addition to this, employees were able to understand required skills and competencies. This system always provides the updates about competency profile and assists in planning. Through this system, the company has provided training to its people for enhancing their skills and abilities towards their work and responsibilities (Liebowitz Frank, 2016). Processes Processes are the logical and structured systems, which lead and guide the organization and its people. The system, implemented by QBE, i.e. Oracle Learning Management simplified the training and development process for the organization. Through this system, it is very easy to provide offline and online training to the staff of organization all over the world. It can help in attaining their organizational goals and objectives (King, Marks, 2008). Moreover, above knowledge management solutions provides the knowledge in learning and assembling the related content by the use of multiple and mixed media sources. Thus, it increases the efficiency of organizational processes and practices. Products Products are the core offering, which are provided by the organization to its potential customers. By managing the knowledge effectively, the products and services of an organization will definitely have large impact. QBE is offering insurance services to the Australian people for securing different parts of their life, like; workplace, home etc. By knowledge management, the people at QBE are more able convince the customers to buy their policies and acquire their services (Lin, Huang, 2008). Through the process of training, they are able to understand and satisfy the needs and expectations of customers and deliver the service effectively. Thus, this knowledge management system will be able to improve service excellence at QBE Insurance Company. Organizational Performance As all of the above components of organizations are affected positively that indicates that performance of the organization is also enhanced by knowledge management solution. It enhanced the administration system in the company (Matayong Kamil Mahmood, 2013). It assisted in reducing the different organizational costs, like; Oracle system assists in contacting with the people via online system. It allows the employees of QBE to communicate via e-mails, web conferencing and chats. It reduced the costs of travelling to different places. By implementing this effective knowledge management system, the company will be able to attain its goals and objectives. Thus, implementation of knowledge management solution impacted all its components, such as; people, processes, products and performance of organization, i.e. QBE Insurance Company (Stefik, 2014). Analysis From the above report, it can be said that QBE Insurance Company has implemented two knowledge management initiatives, which have impacted different areas of organization. From them, one solution, i.e. Oracle Learning Management system went very well at the organization. This system assisted the company in resolving its business issues effectively. They were able to share and implement the knowledge in an effective manner (Porwol, et al, 2015). It encouraged the employees for understanding the requirements of their customer and providing quick solutions to their issues. As they are offering insurance services, so it is very important to convince the customers for taking their insurance policies. Through Oracle Learning Management System, the employees are able to learn this and it has enhanced the performance of organization in Australian Insurance industry (Ternai, Torok Varga, 2014). Apart from this, E-learning tool is failed in the organization, as it is not more effective for the operations of company. This system is very costly for the organization and it does not fulfill all the objectives of the company. In the place of this system, the company should implement another system, i.e. Decision Support System (DSS). This system will be able to give best and appropriate decision for the future development of organization. Decision Support System is one of the primary tools, which are used for managing the knowledge in business. At QBE, this system will enable the management in maintaining the report and giving the required information to the employees (Accorsi, Manzini, Maranesi, 2014). Using this system in knowledge management, managers of QBE will be able to share the information easily and organize online training program from a single location for all the employees worldwide. It will allow the organization in making better decisions by taking the creative ideas and opinions from their employees. Data-driven from the Decision Support System will enhance the accessibility to the information, which develops the skills and abilities of the employees (Schwalbe, 2015). Thus, QBE Insurance Company can improve its knowledge management system by incorporating Decision Support System in its Information Technology infrastructure. It will assist the organization to overcome the deficiencies of e-learning socialization tool. DSS will develop the perception for effective decision making relevant to the business operations of QBE Insurance Company. Conclusion It is hereby concluded that knowledge management is an integral part of a growth oriented firm. The major objective of this process is to enhance the knowledge base of organization for improving the practices and processes in the workplace. This system may assist the organization in enhancing the organizational behavior and creating better decisions for improving organizational performance. From the above analysis, it can be stated that QBE Insurance Company is making several efforts for managing the knowledge within the organization. It is using different IT tools, like; Oracle Learning Management and E-learning socialization tool. At QBE, Oracle system is more successful than e-learning system, so it is recommended that the organization should implement Decision Support system for improving the process of knowledge management. By doing this, the company will be able to manage the knowledge and organizational behaviors effectively. References Accorsi, R., Manzini, R., Maranesi, F. (2014). A decision-support system for the design and management of warehousing systems.Computers in Industry,65(1), 175-186. Becerra-Fernandez, I., Sabherwal, R. (2014).Knowledge management: Systems and processes. Routledge. Ben-Tal, A., Hazan, E., Koren, T., Mannor, S. (2015). Oracle-based robust optimization via online learning.Operations Research,63(3), 628-638. Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2014).Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Nelson Education. Eckles, D. L., Hoyt, R. E., Miller, S. M. (2014). Reprint of: The impact of enterprise risk management on the marginal cost of reducing risk: Evidence from the insurance industry.Journal of Banking Finance,49, 409-423. Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. (Eds.). (2014).Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge. Ghandvar, P., Sehhat, S. (2015). Relationship Between Knowledge Management And Quality Management In Insurance Companies.International journal of academic research,7(1). Hau, Y. S., Kim, B., Lee, H., Kim, Y. G. (2013). The effects of individual motivations and social capital on employees tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions.International Journal of Information Management,33(2), 356-366. Hislop, D. (2013).Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press. Holsapple, C. (Ed.). (2013).Handbook on knowledge management 1: Knowledge matters(Vol. 1). Springer Science Business Media. Holtshouse, D. K. (2013).Information technology for knowledge management. Springer Science Business Media. Huang, L. S., Lai, C. P. (2014). Critical success factors for knowledge management implementation in life insurance enterprises. Jones, G., George, J. (2015).Contemporary management. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. King, W. R., Marks, P. V. (2008). Motivating knowledge sharing through a knowledge management system.Omega,36(1), 131-146. Liebowitz, J., Frank, M. (Eds.). (2016).Knowledge management and e-learning. CRC press. Lin, T. C., Huang, C. C. (2008). Understanding knowledge management system usage antecedents: An integration of social cognitive theory and task technology fit.Information Management,45(6), 410-417. Matayong, S., Kamil Mahmood, A. (2013). The review of approaches to knowledge management system studies.Journal of Knowledge Management,17(3), 472-490. Porwol, L., Hassan, A., Ojo, A., Breslin, J. (2015). Knowledge Extraction and Management Component to Support Spontaneous Participation. International Conference on Electronic Participation, 68-80. QBE. (2017). QBE Insurance Company. Retrieved from https://www.group.qbe.com/. Schwalbe, K. (2015).Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Stefik, M. (2014).Introduction to knowledge systems. Morgan Kaufmann. Ternai, K., Torok, M., Varga, K. (2014). Combining Knowledge Management and Business Process Management A Solution for Information Extraction from Business Process Models Focusing on BPM Challenges. International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective 104-117. Wang, Y. M., Wang, Y. C. (2016). Determinants of firms' knowledge management system implementation: An empirical study.Computers in Human Behavior,64, 829-842.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Programming Essays - Programming Language Implementation

Programming PROGRAMMING A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data. Programs can be built into the hardware itself, or they may exist independently in a form known as software. In some specialized, or dedicated, computers the operating instructions are embedded in their circuitry; common examples are the microcomputers found in calculators, wristwatches, automobile engines, and microwave ovens. A general-pur pose computer, on the other hand, contains some built-in programs (in ROM) or instructions (in the processor chip), but it depends on external programs to perform useful tasks. Once a computer has been programmed, it can do only as much or as little as the software controlling it at any given moment enables it to do. Software in widespread use includes a wide range of applications programs-instructions to the computer on how to perform various tasks. Languages. A computer must be given instructions in a language that it understands-that is, a particular pattern of binary digital information. On the earliest computers, programming was a difficult, laborious task, because vacuum-tube ON-OFF switches had to be set by hand. Teams of programmers often took days to program simple tasks such as sorting a list of names. Since that time a number of computer languages have been devised, some with particular kinds of functioning in mind and others aimed more at ease of use-the user-friendly approach. Machine Language. Unfortunately, the computer's own binary-based language, or machine language, is difficult for humans to use. The programmer must input every command and all data in binary form, and a basic operation such as comparing the contents of a register to the data in a memory-chip location might look like this: 11001010 00010111 11110101 00101011. Machine-language programming is such a tedious, time consuming, task that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. Assembly Language. One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called assembly-language programming. By assigning a short (usually three-letter) mnemonic code to each machine-language command, assembly-language programs could be written and debugged-cleaned of logic and data errors-in a fraction of the time needed by machine-language programmers. In assembly language, each mnemonic command and its symbolic operands equals one machine instruction. An assembler program translates the mnemonic opcodes (operation codes) and symbolic operands into binary language and executes the program. Assembly language, however, can be used only with one type of CPU chip or microprocessor. Programmers who expended much time and effort to learn how to program one computer had to learn a new programming style each time they worked on another machine. What was needed was a shorthand method by which one symbolic statement could represent a sequence of many machine-language instructions, and a way that would allow the same program to run on several types of machines. These needs led to the development of so-called high-level languages. High-Level Languages. High-level languages often use English-like words-for example, LIST, PRINT, OPEN, and so on-as commands that might stand for a sequence of tens or hundreds of machine-language instructions. The commands are entered from the keyboard or from a program in memory or in a storage device, and they are intercepted by a program that translates them into machine-language instructions. Translator programs are of two kinds: interpreters and compilers. With an interpreter, programs that loop back to re-execute part of their instructions reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears, so interpreted programs run much more slowly than machine-language programs. Compilers, by contrast, translate an entire program into machine language prior to execution, so such programs run as rapidly as though they were written directly in machine language. The first commercial programmer was probably Grace Hopper (1906-92), an American. After programming an experimental computer at Harvard University, she worked on the UNIVAC I and II computers and developed a commercially usable high-level programming language called FLOWMATIC. To facilitate computer use in scientific applications, IBM then developed a language that would simplify work involving complicated mathematical formulas. Begun in 1954 and completed in 1957, FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first comprehensive high-level programming language that was widely used. In 1957, the Association for Computing

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Blithe Spirit essays

Blithe Spirit essays Frankly, I was amazed by the set of Blithe Spirit. I am not sure whether it was because I had a hand in building it and all of the skills I acquired in doing so or just the fact that it was a great set. Either way I was extremely impressed. Seeing the set from the front, back, and even above gave me a wider scope of how it worked and how it was put together. I paid special attention to two main aspects of the set; the making and the small intricacies of it. Everything was accounted for when it came to masking. Places to dress privately in the wings, carpet on the stairs and tape on the doors, hard and soft tormentors and the traveling blacks were all used together to mask both unwanted sound and light. As far as the small stuff, I was amazed by how profoundly different the set looked from different angles and distances. From the audience the stage looked laden with tile or hardwood floors and the walls looked rich with texture and depth. From the stage though, the "wood" floors looked obviously fake and so did the tile, the walls were rather flat and the small trinkets looked cheap. What an art of deception. The one thing that I wanted to do from the very start of the run of Blithe Spirit was to see the last scene in which Ruth and Elvira begin tearing up the house. I didnt really get a chance to see the set played upon or the costumes while the actors were on stage but I was not as curious about those things as I was about the last scene, so, I went to the sound booth. When the first shoe dropped, actually a curtain rod, the audience gasped. I could tell that they were not sure whether or not it was supposed to happen. In that one moment, the set was more like an actor than Ive ever seen. It took on a characteristic and made the audience doubt themselves. I had no idea how much of an impact that small scene would have but soon found that ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Participation Discussion Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Participation Discussion Questions - Essay Example According to Sward (2006) a technology should only be implemented if it adds value to the company. Based on this assumption any process improvement while marginal benefits do not exceed its marginal cost should be not be considered. I like your company’s use of the cycle counting method. Increasing the physical inventory counting frequency increases the chances of detecting unproductive activities such as employee theft. Interacting with the customers and gaining feedback from them is a great way to obtain valuable information. Running out of inventory is a nightmare. A few years ago I worked for a manufacturing company. We were developing a new product. The bill of materials included a rare plastic that was hard to locate anywhere globally. We spend six months looking for a suitable supplier that would have a constant supply of the raw material. The project was shut down because a risk management analysis determined that stockouts of the material would occur that would shut down the production line. One of the consequences of a stockout is loss of revenues (Answers, 2009). The scenario you mentioned about the company you work for goes against traditional business wisdom. Most people believe that having a lower inventory count and the implementation of inventory systems such as JIT are the optimum way to run a business. Every industry has its peculiarities and internal knowledge of its behavior is needed in order to make good business decisions. The Comcast product utilizes a customization strategy in order to adapt the specifications based on the level of technological advancement of the region. As the market requirements of different regions change the company could transfer inventory from one region to another. If an inventory model becomes obsolete in one region the company can still use that inventory to supply other locations. Adaptability and flexibility are two good attributes of a production